Consideratii privind Implementarea Conventiei Natiunilor Unite privind Dreptul Marii

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CUPRINS CONTENTS
INTRODUCERE:
Dreptul marii - parte integranta a dreptului international public
CAPITOLUL I
ASPECTE JURIDICE ALE PROBLEMATICII MARII TERITORIALE IN DECURSUL TIMPULUI
1.1. Problematica marii teritoriale in relatiile dintre state inainte de conventia de la Geneva 1958
1.2. Rolul conferintei de la Geneva 1958 in formarea principiilor si conceptelor dreptului marii
1.3. Practica statelor cu privire la marea teritoriala in perioada 1958- 1982
1.4. Conventia din 1982 de la Montego-Bay privind dreptul marii
CAPITOLUL II
REGIMUL JURIDIC AL MARII TERITORIALE
2.1. Natura juridica a marii teritoriale
2.2. Dreptul de trecere inofensiva
2.3. Jurisdictia statului riveran asupra marii teritoriale
2.4. Legislatia Romaniei referitoare la regimul juridic al marii teritoriale
CAPITOLUL III IMPLICATII ALE DELIMITARII MARII TERITORIALE IN RELATIILE DINTRE STATE
3.1. Acorduri intre state privind delimitarea marii teritoriale
3.2. Litigii solutionate pe calea tratativelor direct intre state
3.3. Litigii supuse spre rezolvare Curtii Internationale de Justitie
3.3.1. Delimitarea platoului continental si a zonelor economice exclusive ale Romaniei si Ucrainei in Marea Neagra
CONCLUZII
BIBLIOGRAFIE SELECTIVA


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INTRODUCERE INTRODUCTION
Dreptul marii - parte integranta a dreptului international public
Pamantul este acoperit in cea mai mare parte de apa, utilizarea acesteia fiind la fel de veche ca si existenta omului pe Terra, dar numai in ultima jumatate de mileniu apa a inceput sa fie folosita si in alte scopuri de cat pentru navigatie si pescuit.
Marile si oceanele constituie mai mult de 70% din suprafata globului si au avut dintotdeauna un rol important in progresul omenirii si un impact deosebit asupra tuturor domeniilor vietii economice, politice si militare a statelor tinand cont de faptul ca acestea au constituit o sursa importanta de hrana, au contribuit in mod fundamental la dezvoltarea legaturilor comerciale intre state, indeosebi dupa marile descoperiri geografice iar in prezent pe langa vechile intrebuintari s-au adaugat multe altele noi cum ar fi de exemplu exploatarea resurselor minerale.
Descoperirile stiintei si tehnicii din perioada postbelica au determinat diversificarea functionalitatilor marilor si oceanelor. In sistemul transportului international marea constituie cea mai importanta cale pentru desfasurarea acestuia, in principal pentru faptul ca acesta are un pret redus in raport cu celelalte modalitati si pentru ca permite imbarcarea unui volum mare de marfuri, pe aceasta cale desfasurandu-se 80% din comertul international.
Pentru a guverna relatiile pasnice dintre state, ordinea juridica a marii, creata de-a lungul secolelor pe cale cutumiara sau conventionala, a fost, incepand cu Conferinta de la Geneva din 1958, modernizata cu norme, principii si institutii care sunt destinate sa satisfaca interesele legitime ale tuturor statelor.
In acest context problematica dreptului marii se releva ca fiind de o importanta majora in desfasurarea relatiilor internationale si in viata tuturor statelor lumii. 
Marea teritoriala facand parte integranta din teritoriul de stat, constituie din punct de vedere juridic un subiect deosebit de important, aceasta zona aflandu-se in egala masura atat sub imperiul reglementarilor internationale in materie cat si sub jurisdictia statului riveran. Studierea aspectelor juridice ale marii teritoriale comporta considerarea acestora in contextul larg al dreptului international public si in sens restrans a importantei teme a acestuia - teritoriul. Aceasta zona fiind supusa deopotriva prevederilor internationale si celor interne, care considerate impreuna constituie isi pun amprenta asupra regimului juridic al frontierei nationale.
O precizare care se impune facuta este aceea ca raportul dintre dreptul international si dreptul intern au fost analizate, tinandu-se cont de corelatia existenta intre ele in cadrul temei abordate si de faptul ca sunt rezultatul unitatii dintre politica externa si cea interna a statului, astfel incat normele interne nu pot contrazice normele si principiile dreptului international, tinand cont de faptul ca prin constituirea ca parte la un tratat sau acord international, statul se obliga implicit ca legislatia interna sa nu contrazica actul ratificat. Pornind de la aceasta am examinat tema sub aspectul prevederilor internationale, a celor interne si a raporturilor create prin aceasta interferenta.
Am dedicat primul capitol problematicii marii teritoriale in decursul timpului si tratarii in mod general a celor mai importante conventii in materia dreptului marii, rezervand pentru capitolul al doilea tratarea regimului juridic al marii teritoriale sub aspectele sale definitorii.
Dorind sa reliefam importanta deosebita pentru toate statele de a-si delimita, in principal de comun acord, marea teritoriala am tratat in capitolul trei implicatiile de natura juridica ale acestei delimitari. Tinand cont de faptul ca delimitarea marii teritoriale reprezinta principalul aspect de natura a provoca diferende intre state, si luand in consideratie practica judiciara in materie, am urmarit sa punctam modalitatile de solutionare ale acestora atat pe calea tratativelor cat si prin supunerea lor spre solutionare Curtii Internationale de Justitie.
O mare parte a reglementarilor referindu-se la activitatile desfasurate in marea teritoriala si tinand cont de faptul ca acestea au o importanta fundamentala din punct de vedere economic si social, am considerat oportuna gruparea acestora in ultimul capitol si le-am examinat urmarind principalele aspecte ce le caracterizeaza, reliefand in principal modul in care sunt oglindite mai ales in normele interne. 
The Law of the Sea - A Constitutive Part of the International Public Law
Our planet is covered mostly with water, it is used since human life appeared on Earth, but only in the last half of the millennium the water started to be used in other purposes than sailing or fishing.
The seas and the oceans represent more than 70% of the surface of the Globe and have always played an important role in the progress of humankind and had an awesome impact on every aspect of the economical, political and military life of the states, taking into account the fact that they represented an important source of food, they contributed fundamentally to the development of interstate business relations, particularly after the great geographic discoveries; and nowadays, beside the old use, new ones added, for example the exploitation of the mineral resources.
The postwar science and technique discoveries determined the widening of seas and oceans functionality. In the international transport system, seas represent the most important path for progress, mostly because its low costs compared with the alternatives and because it enables the shipment of large amounts of goods; 80% of the international transport is carried by the sea.
In order to govern the peace interstate relations, the Law of the Sea, based throughout centuries on common or conventional law, has been starting with the 1958 Geneva Conference - updated with: standards, principles, and institutions created in order to satisfy the legitimate interests of all countries. 
In this context, Law of the Sea problems became the most important issues, in the international business relations and all states activities. 
As a constitutive part of a state territory, territorial seas represents - from the legal point of view - a very important issue, they are subordinated to international law regulations and also to coastal state laws. The study of the legal aspects of the territorial sea must take into discussion the many problems that arise from the international public law and the specific issues of the territory - the most important element of it. This domain is subject to international and national regulations, together influencing the law system of the national border.
An analysis of the connection between international and national law has been performed, taking into consideration the correlation which exists between them within the subject in discussion and the fact that they represent the result of the unity between the state national and international policy, so that the internal standards cannot contradict the standards and principles of the international law, taking into account the fact that, as part of the international treaty or agreement, the state engages not to contradict the ratified document with the international law. 
Based on this idea, I studied the theme in respect of the international law, of the internal law and of the relationships created by their interaction.
I dedicated the first chapter to the territorial sea issues along time and to the most important agreements regarding the Law of the Sea, leaving for the second chapter the most important aspects of the law of the territorial sea.
In order to emphasize the importance - for all countries - of the delimitation of the territorial sea by mutual agreement, in the third chapter I dwelled upon the legal implications of this delimitation. Taking into consideration the fact that delimitation of the territorial sea represents the main element that can generate disputes between countries, and based on the law practice in this domain, I underlined the means of solving these problems: by negotiations or by submitting them to settlement to the International Justice Court. 
Most of the regulations regard the activities that develop in the territorial sea; taking into consideration that they are fundamentally important from the economic and social point of view, I discussed them in the last chapter and I examined them starting with the main specific aspects that define them, underlining their influences on the internal regulations.


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