Reglementari ale Concurentei in Spatiul European

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SUMMARY 2
CAPITOLUL I: CONCEPTE ECONOMICE PRIVIND CONCURENTA 5
1.1 Concurenta - trasatura esentiala a economiei de piata 5
1.2 Istoria aparitiei in plan economic a concurentei 6
1.3 Functiile concurentei 7
1.4 Tipuri de concurenta 8
1.5 Concurenta si preturile 10
1.6 Structura pietei si tipurile de piata 10
1.7 Mecanismul concurentei 12
CAPITOLUL II: CADRUL NORMATIV APLICABIL CONCURENTEI IN ROMANIA SI IN UNIUNEA EUROPEANA 15
2.1 Reglementari privind concurenta in economia nationala 15
2.1.1 Sediul reglementarilor nationale privind concurenta 15
2.1.2 Reglementari privind liberalizarea pietelor 18
2.1.3 Reglementari privind practicile anticoncurentiale 19
2.1.4 Reglementari privind abuzul de pozitie dominanta 20
2.1.5 Reglementari privind controlul fuziunilor 21
2.1.6 Reglementari privind ajutoarele de stat 22
2.1.7 Reglementari privind concurenta neloiala 23
2.1.8 Autoritati nationale abilitate in aplicarea legislatiei in domeniul concurentei 25
2.2 Reglementari ale concurentei in spatiul european 26
2.2.1 Sediul reglementarilor europene privind concurenta 26
2.2.2 Reglementari privind liberalizarea pietelor 27
2.2.3 Reglementari privind practicile anticoncurentiale 28
2.2.4 Reglementari privind abuzul de pozitie dominanta 29
2.2.5 Reglementari privind controlul fuziunilor 31
2.2.6 Reglementari privind ajutoarele de stat 31
2.2.7 Reglementari privind concurenta neloiala 33
2.2.8 Autoritati comunitare abilitate in aplicarea legislatiei in domeniul concurentei 34
CAPITOLUL III: STUDIU DE CAZ: SISTEME DE APLICARE A AMENZILOR IN MATERIE DE CONCURENTA - CAUZA C-76/06 P, BRITANNIA ALLOYS & CHEMICALS LTD 38
CONCLUZII SI PROPUNERI 46
BIBLIOGRAFIE 48
ANEXE 50


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SUMMARY
A real competition is the heart of a functional market economy that has been created, thus, a suitable framework for the development of innovation and, by the way of consequence, the diversification of goods and services offered by operators and raising their quality.
The European community attaches great importance to competition policy at Community level; the legislation has been modernized, with effect from the 1st of May 2004, so as to respond to new approaches and challenges. Enforcing the laws is another priority, and the purpose of hardened policy sanctioning and legal instruments has been created to ensure the effective implementation of competition principles.
In Romanian law, prior to the adoption of the Law of competition, there was another legal instrument to transpose into a rigorous Community principles laid down in article 101 and article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, relating to anticompetitive practices. The Law of competition no. 21 of 1996, with subsequent amendments and additions, is the general act governing the field of competition, as a guarantee of knowledge and respect for the rules in the development and strengthening of a market economy.
Taking account of developments in national legislation in this area, as well as its adaptation to Community rules, this work aims to provide an overview of the rules of competition, in the light of the provisions of the Law of competition no. 21 of 1996, the Law on unfair competition no. 11 of 1999, the Emergency Ordinance no. 117 of 2006 on the national procedures in the field of State aid. Alike, were considered the primary and secondary Community law and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice.
The paper strives to put light on all these issues and rules of secondary legislation, prepared in accordance with the law of competition; the competition authority in Romania is fully harmonised with the community legislation. This is the reason why the work is named ,,The rules of competition in the european area." 
In view of the finality of the modern practice of legal provisions in the competition, in carrying out this work I brought in attention cases in which the competition authority has made its applicability, being revealed and solutions given by the competent court in proceedings for judicial review over administrative acts issued by the competition.
Without requiring that all issues of interest have been clarified, I consider that the work can be a useful tool for the practitioners of law, involved in cases of competition or interested in this field, as well as for any professional who wants to know better the mechanisms of a functional market economy and its benefits for the citizen, as a last resort, in his capacity as a consumer.
The competition is a determining phenomenon, essential in the success or failure of companies. It determines the opportunity of those activities of a firm which can contribute to its performance, such as innovation, a uniform culture or judicious implementation.
It is established that the man, when is born or dies, he will try to adapt to the natural environment and social lives, which means that he will need to know what does the competition. First, he will compete with himself, in order to overcome the limits and in order to be in a favourable position in society. Then, he will have to compete with other competitors, printing certain skills, which will allow him to be in a wining position. If we refer to the economic sphere, an economist will have to be reported regularly to the other competitors in the market. Of course, there will be no hazard that will cause this position occupied within a market, but all the resources and skills available to an economist will be useful in the fight to gain a dominant position on the market.
Approving and implementing regulations that maintain or develop barriers to free market competition or that favour the anticompetitive conduct of undertakings have a particularly detrimental effect on economic development and consumer welfare.
PARTEA I
STADIUL ACTUAL AL CUNOASTERII PE PLAN NATIONAL SI INTERNATIONAL
CAPITOLUL I: CONCEPTE ECONOMICE PRIVIND CONCURENTA
1.1 Concurenta - trasatura esentiala a economiei de piata
In literatura economica , concurenta este privita ca o ,,confruntare dintre agentii economici cu activitati similare sau asemanatoare, exercitate in domeniile pietei, pentru castigarea si conservarea clientelei, in scopul rentabilizarii propriei intreprinderi" .
De asemenea, unii autori din literatura de specialitate, considera concurenta o lupta adesea acerba intre agentii economici , care exercita aceeasi activitate sau o activitate similara pentru dobandirea, mentinerea si extinderea clientelei .
Lupta trebuie sa se desfasoare liber, intr-un cadru legal adecvat, limitata numai de ,,intelegerile ilicite" si ,,practicile anticoncurentiale care perturba jocul ofertei si cererii" si care trebuie sanctionate prompt.
Concurenta este privita si ca ,,situatie de referinta in cadrul careia are loc o confruntare libera, completa si veridica intre toti agentii economici atat la nivelul ofertei, cat si al cererii de bunuri si servicii, de bunuri de productie si de capitaluri" .
Concurenta desfasurata in limitele legii nu poate avea decat un efect benefic pe piata pentru ca scopul urmarit de intreprinderile concurente este obtinererea unui profit cat mai mare ce nu poate fi realizat decat prin conservarea propriei clientele si castigarea unui segment nou de clientela. Acest lucru conduce la progres, dezvoltare tehnologica si management eficient.
Manifestarea cererii si ofertei se bazeaza pe libera initiativa, iar forma activa a liberei initiative este insasi concurenta. Privita din unghiul economic al societatii actuale, concurenta reprezinta confruntarea libera, competitia dintre agentii pietei avand ca reper trei aspecte esentiale: pretul, cantitatea si calitatea bunurilor economice. 
Aceasta rivalitate din viata economica exprima comportamentul interesat al tuturor subiectilor in conditiile economiei de piata: consumatorii care urmaresc maxima satisfacerea a nevoilor lor, in timp ce producatorii autonomi si specializati vizeaza profitul, urmarind atragerea clientilor. 
In esenta, concurenta reprezinta atat o cooperare, cat si o confruntare intre agenti economici in cadrul unei economii de piata, avand ca tel dobandirea unor conditii mai bune de productie si vanzare, de achizitie a bunurilor de consum si de efectuare a operatiunilor financiare, valutare si banesti. Astfel, ca exemplu, pot sa afirm ca un cumparator este intr-o continua cautare pentru a gasi vanzatorii care detin produse sau servicii la cel mai mic pret, calitate superioara, conditiile cele mai avantajoase de livrare a bunurilor de consum etc. La randul lor, vanzatorii se intrec intre ei pentru banii potentialilor clienti, pentru a atrage un numar cat mai mare de cumparatori, cu forta economica ridicata, receptivi la pret si alte avantaje. Ca regula demonstrata in practica economica este ca din aceasta competitie ies invingatori cei mai buni. 
Conform dictionarului explicativ al limbii romane, concurenta reprezinta: "o rivalitate comerciala, lupta dusa cu mijloace economice intre industriasi, comercianti, monopoluri, tari pentru acapararea pietei, desfacerea unor produse, clientela si pentru obtinerea unor castiguri cat mai mari" . Concurenta este competitia dintre doua sau mai multe intreprinderi care activeaza in cadrul unei piete pentru atragerea unui numar cat mai mare de clienti in vederea atingerii unor tintelor propuse.


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