Translation of Symbolic Realia from The Da Vinci Code

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1.1. General Notions on Realia 
1.2. Types of Realia 
1.3. Strategies of Rendering Realia in Translation 
2.1. Definition of Symbol 
2.2. Sign versus Symbol.
The Concept of Symbolic Meaning 
2.3. The role of symbol in literature and art 
3.1. General background of The Da Vinci Code 
3.2. Types of symbolic realia used in The Da Vinci Code
and their symbolic connotations 
3.3. Means of translating symbolic realia 
in Dan Brown's novel into Romanian and Russian Languages 

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Prezenta teza de licenta reprezinta un studiu bilateral, in care, pe de o parte, se investigheaza specificul notiunii de realie, din punct de vedere lingvistic si pe de alta parte, se studiaza notiunea de simbol in cadrul sistemului semiotic si semantic al limbii. Realiile formeaza o categorie lexicala speciala, care prezinta unele dificultati in procesul de transpunere a lor dintr-o limba in alta. Astfel ca, unul din obiectivele acestei teze este de identifica originea problemelor cauzate de realii in procesul de traducere, de gasi cele mai reusite mijloace de redare a acestor unitati lexicale in alte limbi si de a examina corelatia dintre simbol si realie, de a vedea care este efectul co-existarii lor intr-o opera literara, de a examina rolul lor in calitate de unitati lingvistice si culturale. 
Lucrarea cuprinde trei capitole. Capitolul I, intitulat "Realiile -un fenomen lingvistic" include notiuni generale despre aceasta categorie lexicala. Aici sint expuse parerile diferitor lingvisti, cercetatori, filologi care au investigat aceste unitati lexicale. De asemenea, in acest capitol ne-am referit la tipurile de realii si am expus clasificarea lor conform diferitor criterii si autori. Tot in acest capitol am facut o trecere in revista a celor mai cunoscute strategii de redare a realiilor in traducere. 
Capitolul II este intitulat "Abordarea din perspectiva semiotica a notiunii de simbol". In capitolul dat am definit conceptul de semn lingvistic si simbol. Am mentionat despre particularitatea simbolurilor de a avea mai multe substraturi semantice si despre rolul lor in litaratura si arta. Capitolul III, intitulat "Realiile simbolice in romanul Codul lui da Vinci de Dan Brown si mijloacele lor de traducere" (studiu in baza versiunii romanului in limba engleza, romana si rusa). In capitolul dat am mentionat despre contextual istoric, cultural si social in care a aparut opera autorului american Dan Brown, am efectuat o clasificare a tipurilor de realii cu caracter simbolic din cadrul romanului. Clasificarea realiilor simbolice a fost efectuata in baza originii lor si frecventei prezentii lor intr-un anumit context. De asemenea, in acest capitol, care constituie partea empirica a prezentei teze de licenta, se investigheaza modalitatile de traducere a realiilor simbolice din romanul Codul lui da Vinci si se face un studiu comparativ a modalitatii traducerii realiilor in limba romana si cele folosite la traducerea lor in limba rusa. 
Lucrarea de asemenea mai include o lista bibliografica selectiva. La cercetarea problemei pe care ne-am propus-o drept obiectiv, am utilizat metode diferite, una dintre ele fiind metoda analizei exemplelor traduse. O alta metoda este cea comparativa: originalul s-a studiat vizavi de textele traduse. In concluzii am expus rezultatele la care am ajuns, tratind tema data. 
1.1. General Notions on Realia
Translation can be considered as an attempt to fulfill an act of communication between two linguistic and cultural communities. The difference between languages is basically the essential purpose of translation. A word, within the same linguistic community, does not represent perfectly the same thing for all people. As early as the 19th century, Wilhelm von Humboldt (1880) goes further to say that a word is nothing but what each individual thinks it is. Georges Mounin (1957) explains that each word is the sum of each individual's personal and subjective experience concerning the object this word represents. Therefore, exchanging words can not assure a perfect communication of an idea between the members of the same linguistic community. This is what Wilhelm von Humboldt explains in the following words: "(...) to the one who assimilates as to the one who speaks, this idea must come out from his own inner strength: all what the former receives consists solely in the harmonic excitement that makes him be in such or such a state of mind" [1880: 25]. Obviously, different individuals perceive the same words in different ways. That is why the same author suggests: "Words, even the most concrete and the clearest ones, are far from arousing the ideas, the emotions and the memories presumed by the one who utters them" [Humboldt 1880: 25]. It is true that an extremist form of this view may raise a controversy as to the extent of probable limitations to the communicative capacity of language. However, recent psycholinguistic research findings provide considerable evidence that, within the same linguistic community, individual experience and perception associate different mental images, from a person to another, with the same linguistic sign [Eco1997: 41]. Thus, it might be concluded, as formulated by Georges Mounin, that each language is nothing but the sum of its speakers' individual experiences, and hence: "(...) two languages (...) never store up the same stock of experiences, images, ways of life and thought, myths and world views" [1957: 27].
Again some earlier thinkers like Wilhelm von Humboldt (1909) and Friedrich Schleiermacher attained this same conclusion as early as the 19th century. The latter put it as follows: "(...) every language includes (...) one system of concepts that, precisely because they overlap, unite and complement each other within the same language, form one whole whose different parts do not correspond to any of those of other languages' systems. (...) For even what is absolutely universal, though beyond the domain of particularity, is enlightened and coloured by language" [Schleiermacher 1813: 85]. 
What Friedrich Schleiermacher (1813) calls a system of concepts is a human being's or a group of individuals' system of relative concepts that seek to reach absolute concepts. In other words, it is a tentative knowledge about the world that constantly attempts to reach perfect accordance with reality. What he means is that the interaction between the concepts of the same language community results in a unique organized mixture or system of concepts. Wilhelm von Humboldt highlights a comparable concept when he discusses the difference between languages: "Two different languages are, then, like synonyms: each expresses the same concept a little differently, with more or less concomitant determination, a little higher or a little lower on the scale of sensation" [1909: 143].

Fisiere in arhiva (4):

  • bibliografia tezei.doc
  • Diploma Thesis.doc
  • Table of Contents.doc
  • teza_introducere.doc

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